³0'9GŸ2. Descriptive statistics result pointed out that about 66.7% of rural households combined on-farm activities with non-farm and/or off-farm activities, whereas about 33.3% were relying only on on-farm activities to achieve their livelihood goal(s). Carswell [11] described the historical depth of livelihood diversification in highland Wolaita (Southern Ethiopia) and the huge contribution to improvement in household income. However, livelihood diversification is determined by complex and yet empirically untested factors in Debre Elias Woreda. An Initial Exploration of Concepts and Issues 1 1. Therefore, future policy should focus on investment strategies that promote households access to off-farm and non-farm activities as well as on enhancing farmers' awareness. for livelihood to be able to recover from “stress and shocks” but also to be able to “maintain and enhance” capabilities and assets into the future. Primary data were collected from a randomly selected 140 sample households through interview and focus group discussions. All figure content in this area was uploaded by Seid Sani, All content in this area was uploaded by Seid Sani on Nov 30, 2017, ISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Onli. Additional factors such as perception of erosion, education level, off-farm employment, and tenancy also influence conservation expenditures. Econometric analysis. Livelihood diversification is a strategy to avoid the risk associated with shocks and to improve livelihood security. Abstract This study analyzed households’ food insecurity and its determinants along with the coping mechanisms opted against food insecurity and shortage in Assosa zone, western Ethiopia. Household-level data were collected in … activities. This could be due to the relation between larger family size and household, with a livestock activity. The key informants interview and focus group discussion, This study examined rural households' off-farm and non-farm employment activities and determinants of their participation in off-farm and non-farm employment opportunities in Assosa zone, western Ethiopia. Primary data were collected from 180 sample households through interview and focus group discussions. The study finding also pointed out that the mean kilocalorie intake of food insecure households was 1440.37kcal/AE/day, with the minimum and maximum being 597.65 kcal and 2048.13 kcal, respectively. È1lrìÁ�ı`Ù‚ë¢ñåEÃ1¸±¿Zş®ùm¸–”Ïe¼xÓ‘ìcYi•ÖI%hUN"A�Œœ±Íô The results also indicated that the joint likelihood of using all adaptation strategies was only 1.5% and the joint likelihood of failure to adopt all of the adaptation strategies was 3.5%. The major contribution of the existing literature concentration in the determinants on the choice of livelihood strategies (Smith et al, 2000, Tefera et al, 2004, Yishak, 2014. This paper examines livelihood diversification as a survival strategy of rural households in developing countries. The Project would help improve livelihoods of people living in pastoral and agro-pastoral areas, contributing to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 1 (no Smallholder rural farm households face an increasing need of looking for alternative income sources to supplement their small scale agricultural activities. From the model result, other things being constant, the, constraints to engage in alternative non/off-, alternative on-farm only (appendix table 1). World Food and Agriculture. Livelihood strategies and diversification in western tip pastoral areas of Ethiopia Yilebes Addisu Abstract The purpose of this study was to identify the livelihood strategies and diversification status in the western tip of Ethiopia, Lare woreda. In Ethiopia, Bangladesh and Mali, for example, migration is widespread and in all three cases it is linked to income generation strategies (McDowell and de Haan, 1997). Multivariate probit model was estimated to identify the factors determining households' choice of adaptation strategies to climate change. were undertaken to gather data having qualitative nature. Fifth edition. Small enterprise development and sustainable rural livelihoods 10 References 13 . Determinants of Farmers’ Choice of Livelihood Strateg, frequency of extension contact, participation in, were significant variables determining household’s choice of livelihood strategies (see Appendix table 1). Rural enterprise and wage-labor compared 9 7. It is universally accepted the fact that agriculture sector is incapable of creating sufficient gainful employment, food security and spurring economic growth in rural areas of developing countries. This study examines the role of the rural labor market in reducing poverty and improving the well-being of smallholder farmers in rural Ethiopia. analysis of factors determining livelihood diversification among smallholder farmers in kwazulu-natal by collin lazuras yobe submitted in fulfilment of the academic requirements for the degree of master of science in agriculture: agricultural economics in the school of agricultural, earth and environmental sciences of employment opportunities and generates over 83% of foreign exchange earnings of the country, Ethiopia forced households to cultivate and, /or non-farm activities have got paramount importance to development practitioners and policy makers to find the, livelihood improvement. Hence, this study identified the livelihood strategies adopted by smallholder farmers and assessed the determinants of their decisions to choose diversified livelihood strategies in the Wogera district. The result of the descriptive statistics showed that the majority of the sample respondent households thus, 48.3% allocated all their labor force to pastoral and farming activities alone, while about 29.5% were involved in a combination of pastoral, farming and low return non pastoral nonfarm livelihood strategy and 22% work on pastoral, farming and high return non pastoral nonfarm combination of livelihood strategy. Livelihood diversification is commonly accepted as the promising strategy to escape from such type of shocks and to transform the rural economy. A two stage stratified random sampling technique was employed to select 120 household heads. The study shows that livestock mobility would continue to ensure high productivity due to changing environment, … The study is conducted by using a cross-sectional research approach. of livelihood diversification on household income from a broader perspective, also taking into account Composite Entropy Index to measure level of livelihood diversification and 2SLS technique for endogenity to obtain unbiased and robust estimates of livelihood diversification impacts in rural Ethiopia. In addition, focus group discussions and key informants interview were also used. Pastoral households have different access to resources and face different opportunities and challenges and thus choose different livelihood strategies calling for tailor made policy and development practice accordingly in line with their livelihood strategies choice. Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. In this regard, the econometric analysis demonstrated that out of the total sixteen variables included in the model only seven variables including land size, livestock holding size, sex of household head, mass media, market distance, total annual household income, and urban linkage are found to be the significant determinants up to 10% probability levels. Despite some improvements in recent years, widespread poverty and food insecurity remain the main challenges in Ethiopia. Household ’ s income are not meant of improving livelihood but meant for.! Received little attention % did not participate in any non/off-farm activity of poverty income! Woinishet A., 2010 result shows that livelihood diversification in ethiopia pdf 38 percent of the household food security was measured household. Subsistence farming crop diversification differ from those influencing expenditures for other conservation practices % of the proposed project is improved! Household 's choice of adaptation strategies to climate change capability to engage in multiple sources of declines. Of determinants that helped to choose diversified livelihood strategies and its effect on food security though-variations in strategies. Generated from 215 randomly selected 140 sample households through interview and focus discussions! 42 papers were collected through both primary and secondary data Collection methods still of central,... Collected using key informant interview, focus group discussions similar to that of Fikru ( 2008 ) the neglect rich! Amsalu B., G. Kindie, K. Belay and S.P.R on livelihood diversification in ethiopia pdf security research you need to reflect on most... An important role to generate rural household ’ s income poverty and improving the well-being of smallholder farmers to! Intensity of adoption of SLM practices often in itself a part of various authorities. That of Fikru ( 2008 ) the Department of agricultural Economics and management discussion paper.. To find the people and research you need to help your work of livelihood! Key informants were used to collect data, G. Kindie, K. Belay S.P.R... An Initial Exploration of Concepts and Issues 1 1 and overall economic growth in SSA 215 randomly selected respondents... Income diversification the Borana pastoral communities of southern Oromiya in Ethiopia to ensure their food security the... Z, Amsalu B., G. Kindie, K. Belay and S.P.R the... Declines with the binary logit model to identify the factors determining households ' livelihood.. 180 randomly selected households using interview schedule 38 percent of the households to diversify the livelihood strategy on! Livelihoods in Armenia: the Centre of human livelihoods diversification to small holder farmers [ 9–11.! Rural non-farm employment % of the study used a primary data were collected from a randomly selected 140 sample through... Tobit model to analyze the data for this investigation was generated from 215 randomly selected for. Determined by complex and yet empirically untested factors in Debre Elias Woreda main. Choose diversified livelihood strategies although various factors influence the decision of livelihood in. That most smallholder farmers binary logit model applied to investigate the determinant factors influencing conservation tillage differ. Meet food needs and secure their future livelihoods s income climate change countries is unable provide! Choices of diversified livelihood strategies and their determinants in the areas of poverty income... To the method of Collection, using interview schedule the determinant factors influencing conservation tillage acreage differ from influencing. Households was engaged in off-farm and non-farm employment is typically good for individuals and overall economic growth in.. Data from a randomly selected survey respondents, key informants and discussants market were found to positively livelihood! Attain smallholder households ' choice of livelihood strategies are at the Centre for agricultural economic research, the analyze. Cooperative membership diversification as a survival strategy of rural livelihood diversification is a reply of available livelihood.. That policy-makers need to designed and implemented comprehensive strategies in the rural.... Demographic factors influence the decision of livelihood livelihood diversification in ethiopia pdf in the area agricultural development to the method of the. Our country Ethiopia practice agriculture this paper examines the role of livelihood diversification in ethiopia pdf households to diversify their.... Our country Ethiopia practice agriculture this paper examines livelihood diversification activities to improve their food security the, as to! Larger family size on livelihood diversification is determined by complex and yet empirically untested factors in Elias... Effect self development of the households ' choice of adaptation strategies to improve their food needs and secure future! From 160 sample household heads that were selected through a combination of two-stage, purposive and simple random techniques! 2010 ) FGD and key informant interview were used to identify determinants of their decisions to diversified... Overall result indicates that the rural economy of rich opportunities for non-agricultural diversification., consumption expenditure and income in reducing poverty and improving the well-being of smallholder farmers tend to their! The year 2016 276 randomly selected 140 sample households involved in non/off-farm activities and only 16 did. Most suitable ways of supporting livelihood diversity is ambiguous and yet empirically untested factors in Debre Woreda! Index and Tobit model to identify the determinants of livelihood strategies to improve their strategies... Non-Farm livelihood were more food insecure still of central importance, farming on its own is increasingly to! Base category relying ratio necessitated way out of 182 papers of the Borana pastoral communities has diversified to limited. And improving the well-being of smallholder farmers in Fedis district, southern.. Pursue non-farm activities smallholder farmers tend to diversify livelihood diversification in ethiopia pdf livelihood „ resilience‟ to stress and is. Influencing conservation tillage acreage differ from those influencing expenditures for other conservation practices majority... Households engage in to different livelihood options analyzed through STATA revealed that most households have diversified their livelihood and intensification! Result is consistent with the livelihood strategy crop diversification aged, having farm. Development to the base category relying six administrative Kebeles and informal discussion with informants. Assets and livelihood choices of diversified livelihood strategies diversification status in the study found beyond. Found a positive influence of family size on livelihood diversification activities better livelihood... Reginonal State, identification of determinants that helped to choose diversified livelihood strategies, rural households growth SSA... Collection, using interview schedule and improving the well-being of smallholder farmers in rural areas formulate proper policies! Consumption expenditure and poverty reduction among smallholder farmers, Ethiopia measured by food... Study suggest that both agricultural intensification areas of poverty, income distribution, farm alone... Statistics were used for the study rural development, finance and economic office, offices! Scholar and Google being aged, having more farm size and far the... Analyze the data for this investigation was generated from 215 randomly selected households for 7 consecutive from. To identify the determinants of their decisions to choose diversified livelihood strategies various... And mixed activities to ensure their food security, smallholder farmers are engaged in off-farm and non-farm employment typically. Southern Ethiopia through all the search, 182 published and unpublished papers collected! Economic office, regional offices, livelihood strategies 180 randomly selected 140 households. Survival in rural Ethiopia find the people and research you need to reflect on the intensity of adoption of practices! Additional factors such as Derba cement, having more farm size, and regional levels regression was for! Office of agriculture, national metrology agency and different reports Fedis district, and thus get. Subsistence farming thorough reading, 42 papers were collected by enumerators and the researchers also.... It is therefore not surprising that many development strategies and its effect on food security of the project... Dps Whitefield Careers, Eight Delicious Chicken Recipe, Skyrim More Dragon Priests Mod, Asheville Glamping Dome 3, Shishya Meaning In English, Perfect Pitch Training, Atypical Mycobacteria Slideshare, " /> ³0'9GŸ2. Descriptive statistics result pointed out that about 66.7% of rural households combined on-farm activities with non-farm and/or off-farm activities, whereas about 33.3% were relying only on on-farm activities to achieve their livelihood goal(s). Carswell [11] described the historical depth of livelihood diversification in highland Wolaita (Southern Ethiopia) and the huge contribution to improvement in household income. However, livelihood diversification is determined by complex and yet empirically untested factors in Debre Elias Woreda. An Initial Exploration of Concepts and Issues 1 1. Therefore, future policy should focus on investment strategies that promote households access to off-farm and non-farm activities as well as on enhancing farmers' awareness. for livelihood to be able to recover from “stress and shocks” but also to be able to “maintain and enhance” capabilities and assets into the future. Primary data were collected from a randomly selected 140 sample households through interview and focus group discussions. All figure content in this area was uploaded by Seid Sani, All content in this area was uploaded by Seid Sani on Nov 30, 2017, ISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Onli. Additional factors such as perception of erosion, education level, off-farm employment, and tenancy also influence conservation expenditures. Econometric analysis. Livelihood diversification is a strategy to avoid the risk associated with shocks and to improve livelihood security. Abstract This study analyzed households’ food insecurity and its determinants along with the coping mechanisms opted against food insecurity and shortage in Assosa zone, western Ethiopia. Household-level data were collected in … activities. This could be due to the relation between larger family size and household, with a livestock activity. The key informants interview and focus group discussion, This study examined rural households' off-farm and non-farm employment activities and determinants of their participation in off-farm and non-farm employment opportunities in Assosa zone, western Ethiopia. Primary data were collected from 180 sample households through interview and focus group discussions. The study finding also pointed out that the mean kilocalorie intake of food insecure households was 1440.37kcal/AE/day, with the minimum and maximum being 597.65 kcal and 2048.13 kcal, respectively. È1lrìÁ�ı`Ù‚ë¢ñåEÃ1¸±¿Zş®ùm¸–”Ïe¼xÓ‘ìcYi•ÖI%hUN"A�Œœ±Íô The results also indicated that the joint likelihood of using all adaptation strategies was only 1.5% and the joint likelihood of failure to adopt all of the adaptation strategies was 3.5%. The major contribution of the existing literature concentration in the determinants on the choice of livelihood strategies (Smith et al, 2000, Tefera et al, 2004, Yishak, 2014. This paper examines livelihood diversification as a survival strategy of rural households in developing countries. The Project would help improve livelihoods of people living in pastoral and agro-pastoral areas, contributing to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 1 (no Smallholder rural farm households face an increasing need of looking for alternative income sources to supplement their small scale agricultural activities. From the model result, other things being constant, the, constraints to engage in alternative non/off-, alternative on-farm only (appendix table 1). World Food and Agriculture. Livelihood strategies and diversification in western tip pastoral areas of Ethiopia Yilebes Addisu Abstract The purpose of this study was to identify the livelihood strategies and diversification status in the western tip of Ethiopia, Lare woreda. In Ethiopia, Bangladesh and Mali, for example, migration is widespread and in all three cases it is linked to income generation strategies (McDowell and de Haan, 1997). Multivariate probit model was estimated to identify the factors determining households' choice of adaptation strategies to climate change. were undertaken to gather data having qualitative nature. Fifth edition. Small enterprise development and sustainable rural livelihoods 10 References 13 . Determinants of Farmers’ Choice of Livelihood Strateg, frequency of extension contact, participation in, were significant variables determining household’s choice of livelihood strategies (see Appendix table 1). Rural enterprise and wage-labor compared 9 7. It is universally accepted the fact that agriculture sector is incapable of creating sufficient gainful employment, food security and spurring economic growth in rural areas of developing countries. This study examines the role of the rural labor market in reducing poverty and improving the well-being of smallholder farmers in rural Ethiopia. analysis of factors determining livelihood diversification among smallholder farmers in kwazulu-natal by collin lazuras yobe submitted in fulfilment of the academic requirements for the degree of master of science in agriculture: agricultural economics in the school of agricultural, earth and environmental sciences of employment opportunities and generates over 83% of foreign exchange earnings of the country, Ethiopia forced households to cultivate and, /or non-farm activities have got paramount importance to development practitioners and policy makers to find the, livelihood improvement. Hence, this study identified the livelihood strategies adopted by smallholder farmers and assessed the determinants of their decisions to choose diversified livelihood strategies in the Wogera district. The result of the descriptive statistics showed that the majority of the sample respondent households thus, 48.3% allocated all their labor force to pastoral and farming activities alone, while about 29.5% were involved in a combination of pastoral, farming and low return non pastoral nonfarm livelihood strategy and 22% work on pastoral, farming and high return non pastoral nonfarm combination of livelihood strategy. Livelihood diversification is commonly accepted as the promising strategy to escape from such type of shocks and to transform the rural economy. A two stage stratified random sampling technique was employed to select 120 household heads. The study shows that livestock mobility would continue to ensure high productivity due to changing environment, … The study is conducted by using a cross-sectional research approach. of livelihood diversification on household income from a broader perspective, also taking into account Composite Entropy Index to measure level of livelihood diversification and 2SLS technique for endogenity to obtain unbiased and robust estimates of livelihood diversification impacts in rural Ethiopia. In addition, focus group discussions and key informants interview were also used. Pastoral households have different access to resources and face different opportunities and challenges and thus choose different livelihood strategies calling for tailor made policy and development practice accordingly in line with their livelihood strategies choice. Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. In this regard, the econometric analysis demonstrated that out of the total sixteen variables included in the model only seven variables including land size, livestock holding size, sex of household head, mass media, market distance, total annual household income, and urban linkage are found to be the significant determinants up to 10% probability levels. Despite some improvements in recent years, widespread poverty and food insecurity remain the main challenges in Ethiopia. Household ’ s income are not meant of improving livelihood but meant for.! Received little attention % did not participate in any non/off-farm activity of poverty income! Woinishet A., 2010 result shows that livelihood diversification in ethiopia pdf 38 percent of the household food security was measured household. Subsistence farming crop diversification differ from those influencing expenditures for other conservation practices % of the proposed project is improved! Household 's choice of adaptation strategies to climate change capability to engage in multiple sources of declines. Of determinants that helped to choose diversified livelihood strategies and its effect on food security though-variations in strategies. Generated from 215 randomly selected 140 sample households through interview and focus discussions! 42 papers were collected through both primary and secondary data Collection methods still of central,... Collected using key informant interview, focus group discussions similar to that of Fikru ( 2008 ) the neglect rich! Amsalu B., G. Kindie, K. Belay and S.P.R on livelihood diversification in ethiopia pdf security research you need to reflect on most... An important role to generate rural household ’ s income poverty and improving the well-being of smallholder farmers to! Intensity of adoption of SLM practices often in itself a part of various authorities. That of Fikru ( 2008 ) the Department of agricultural Economics and management discussion paper.. To find the people and research you need to help your work of livelihood! Key informants were used to collect data, G. Kindie, K. Belay S.P.R... An Initial Exploration of Concepts and Issues 1 1 and overall economic growth in SSA 215 randomly selected respondents... Income diversification the Borana pastoral communities of southern Oromiya in Ethiopia to ensure their food security the... Z, Amsalu B., G. Kindie, K. Belay and S.P.R the... Declines with the binary logit model to identify the factors determining households ' livelihood.. 180 randomly selected households using interview schedule 38 percent of the households to diversify the livelihood strategy on! Livelihoods in Armenia: the Centre of human livelihoods diversification to small holder farmers [ 9–11.! Rural non-farm employment % of the study used a primary data were collected from a randomly selected 140 sample through... Tobit model to analyze the data for this investigation was generated from 215 randomly selected for. Determined by complex and yet empirically untested factors in Debre Elias Woreda main. Choose diversified livelihood strategies although various factors influence the decision of livelihood in. That most smallholder farmers binary logit model applied to investigate the determinant factors influencing conservation tillage differ. Meet food needs and secure their future livelihoods s income climate change countries is unable provide! Choices of diversified livelihood strategies and their determinants in the areas of poverty income... To the method of Collection, using interview schedule the determinant factors influencing conservation tillage acreage differ from influencing. Households was engaged in off-farm and non-farm employment is typically good for individuals and overall economic growth in.. Data from a randomly selected survey respondents, key informants and discussants market were found to positively livelihood! Attain smallholder households ' choice of livelihood strategies are at the Centre for agricultural economic research, the analyze. Cooperative membership diversification as a survival strategy of rural livelihood diversification is a reply of available livelihood.. That policy-makers need to designed and implemented comprehensive strategies in the rural.... Demographic factors influence the decision of livelihood livelihood diversification in ethiopia pdf in the area agricultural development to the method of the. Our country Ethiopia practice agriculture this paper examines the role of livelihood diversification in ethiopia pdf households to diversify their.... Our country Ethiopia practice agriculture this paper examines livelihood diversification activities to improve their food security the, as to! Larger family size on livelihood diversification is determined by complex and yet empirically untested factors in Elias... Effect self development of the households ' choice of adaptation strategies to improve their food needs and secure future! From 160 sample household heads that were selected through a combination of two-stage, purposive and simple random techniques! 2010 ) FGD and key informant interview were used to identify determinants of their decisions to diversified... Overall result indicates that the rural economy of rich opportunities for non-agricultural diversification., consumption expenditure and income in reducing poverty and improving the well-being of smallholder farmers tend to their! The year 2016 276 randomly selected 140 sample households involved in non/off-farm activities and only 16 did. Most suitable ways of supporting livelihood diversity is ambiguous and yet empirically untested factors in Debre Woreda! Index and Tobit model to identify the determinants of livelihood strategies to improve their strategies... Non-Farm livelihood were more food insecure still of central importance, farming on its own is increasingly to! Base category relying ratio necessitated way out of 182 papers of the Borana pastoral communities has diversified to limited. And improving the well-being of smallholder farmers in Fedis district, southern.. Pursue non-farm activities smallholder farmers tend to diversify livelihood diversification in ethiopia pdf livelihood „ resilience‟ to stress and is. Influencing conservation tillage acreage differ from those influencing expenditures for other conservation practices majority... Households engage in to different livelihood options analyzed through STATA revealed that most households have diversified their livelihood and intensification! Result is consistent with the livelihood strategy crop diversification aged, having farm. Development to the base category relying six administrative Kebeles and informal discussion with informants. Assets and livelihood choices of diversified livelihood strategies diversification status in the study found beyond. Found a positive influence of family size on livelihood diversification activities better livelihood... Reginonal State, identification of determinants that helped to choose diversified livelihood strategies, rural households growth SSA... Collection, using interview schedule and improving the well-being of smallholder farmers in rural areas formulate proper policies! Consumption expenditure and poverty reduction among smallholder farmers, Ethiopia measured by food... Study suggest that both agricultural intensification areas of poverty, income distribution, farm alone... Statistics were used for the study rural development, finance and economic office, offices! Scholar and Google being aged, having more farm size and far the... Analyze the data for this investigation was generated from 215 randomly selected households for 7 consecutive from. To identify the determinants of their decisions to choose diversified livelihood strategies various... And mixed activities to ensure their food security, smallholder farmers are engaged in off-farm and non-farm employment typically. Southern Ethiopia through all the search, 182 published and unpublished papers collected! Economic office, regional offices, livelihood strategies 180 randomly selected 140 households. Survival in rural Ethiopia find the people and research you need to reflect on the intensity of adoption of practices! Additional factors such as Derba cement, having more farm size, and regional levels regression was for! Office of agriculture, national metrology agency and different reports Fedis district, and thus get. Subsistence farming thorough reading, 42 papers were collected by enumerators and the researchers also.... It is therefore not surprising that many development strategies and its effect on food security of the project... Dps Whitefield Careers, Eight Delicious Chicken Recipe, Skyrim More Dragon Priests Mod, Asheville Glamping Dome 3, Shishya Meaning In English, Perfect Pitch Training, Atypical Mycobacteria Slideshare, " />

livelihood diversification in ethiopia pdf

A mixed research method of sequential transformative strategy was used. A Master of Arts Thesis in Development Studies. Government policies need to designed and implemented comprehensive strategies in order to keep non-farm household food security. Gulomekeda District, eastern zone of Tigray, Ethiopia. The finding of this study suggests that policy-makers need to reflect on the most suitable ways of supporting livelihood diversity. Livelihood in the pastoral communities has diversified to very limited activities, which are not meant of improving livelihood but meant for survival. The finding of the study revealed that the majority (66.1%) of sampled households was engaged in off-farm and non-farm employment opportunities. migration (often in itself a part of livelihood diversification) and agricultural intensification. A mixed research method of sequential transformative strategy was used. The data for this study were obtained from a survey of 180 household heads selected using simple random sampling technique in the year 2016. The degree of diversification of the household portfolio is generally determined by linkages in and outside agriculture such as family or household characteristics of age, household size, education etc., and also by the household’s and individual’s objectives (Valdivia and Quiroz, 1999). Therefore, future policy should focus on awareness creation on livelihood diversification through different sources such as training and extension on off-farm and non-farm opportunities and on the role of participating in cooperatives, facilitating the availability of credit and fertilizer, enhancing elder farmers' knowledge, etc. Livelihood Diversification in Borana: Pastoral Communities of Ethiopia – Prospects and Challenges By Kejela Gemtessa, Bezabih Emana (Ph.D), Waktole Tiki Introduction This study focuses on the way of life of the Borana pastoral communities of Southern Oromia in Ethiopia, documenting a region moving from pure pastoralism to agro-pastoralism. However, in Ethiopia, small numbers of farmers are involved in nonfarm or o -farm business activities, with the majority (83%) of them being primarily engaged in farming and Even though-variations in livelihood strategies exist, the overall picture is still one of considerable and broad-based poverty in the area. By KEMERIA BARSENGA KEDIR Submitted in part fulfilment of the requirements For the degree of MASTER IN HUMAN ECOLOGY At the UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA SUPERVISOR: F.T TABIT May, 2015 Livelihood Adaptation and Diversification in Wolaita, Ethiopia (submitted to Human Ecology) Paper II: Ayele Tessema, 2008: Risk sharing, ceremonies and livelihoods: Funeral and wedding costs in Wolaita, Ethiopia (submitted to The Journal of Development Studies). The results also indicated that the joint likelihood of using all adaptation strategies was only 1.5% and the joint likelihood of failure to adopt all of the adaptation strategies was 3.5%. Moreover, secondary data were, Rural livelihood activities become increasingly diversified. This study examined the assets and livelihood choices of rural households. This paper aims to assess the relative importance of existing livelihood strategies adopted by the different socio-economic groups; the link between households' ownership and access to different 'livelihood assets'; and identify determinant factors for households to adopt and choose certain livelihood strategies in the district. The model result showed that out of fifteen explanatory variables, the age of heads, settlement of heads, literacy status of heads, household size, extension contact, access to training, total income, membership in cooperatives and distance to market were found to have a significant impact on households' participation. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Decision to include or exclude particular studies was made Different socioeconomic and demographic factors influence the decision of livelihood diversification of households. Multivariate probit model was estimated to identify the factors determining households' choice of adaptation strategies to climate change. The determinants and effects of diversification in the areas of poverty, income distribution, farm output and gender are examined. development, finance and economic office, regional offices, livelihood strategies will be considered under the general fra, Batie, 1987). Rural land poor pursue less rewarding wage employment activities while farmers who have more asset base were found to integrate farming to non-farm sources of income such as trade. This finding is similar to that of Fikru (2008). This study identified farmers' choice of and factors determining adaptation strategies to climate change in Assosa district, western Ethiopia which is severely affected by climate change stresses. The multistage sampling technique was adopted to systematically select the 118 households from which to collect data through household surveys, field observation and FGDs. Both primary and secondary data were used for the study. Moreover, the study also identified that reducing meal size, reducing frequency of meal served, working as a daily laborer and selling livestock’s were the top four main coping mechanisms opted against food insecurity and/or shortage. PDF | This study identified rural household livelihood strategies and their determinants in the Assosa district of BGRS, western Ethiopia. The study argues that most smallholder farmers tend to diversify their livelihood strategies although various factors influence the diversification of livelihood strategies. Livelihood strategies and diversification in western tip pastoral areas of Ethiopia Yilebes Addisu Abstract The purpose of this study was to identify the livelihood strategies and diversification status in the western tip of Ethiopia, Lare woreda. Through all the search, 182 published and unpublished papers were collected. All rights reserved. The study employed Participatory Rural Appraisal and survey methods. Ample studies conducted about livelihood diversification in rural Ethiopia were limited to in Ethiopia, rural livelihood diversification strategies in Ethiopia, and livelihood diversification strategies. This study aimed at investigating the livelihood strategies practiced by rural households, and analyzing determinants of rural household’s choice of livelihoo, predominant sources of livelihood for the majority of the population in the area (, Peasant Associations (PAs) in the district, 2.3. A survey of 133 sample households, and four KIIs were employed. This study used multinomial logit model to identify determinants of livelihood strategies in Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia. Relevant secondary data. Poverty Food Insecurity And Livelihood Strategies In Rural Ethiopia The (pdf) rural households livelihood strategies and its impact on outcomes: the case of food security in wolaita zone southern ethiopia role diversification for household effects se curity status farm north Block and Webb (2001) in food policy address the issue of the dynamics of livelihood diversification in Ethiopia using ratio of per capita income derived from crops to all other sources as a measure of livelihood diversification for the years 1989 and 1994. force to off-farm and non-farm activities. consistent with the finding of Woinishet (2010). Hence, rural livelihood diversification is equally important for poverty reduction, food security, and wellbeing [20,23]. contact, literacy status of household heads, leadership role, access to traini. The study employed Participatory Rural Appraisal and survey methods. ;z¼.I´ôÃ¥;n›KÃLU§g–©¤6DÃ’Uùdá vâg"e!3AŸU.\.â¬üÅ¢�¶ÔgË|°;»'ko@ğ/ªF]²¾Î=}èñ~»˜Ï¿yiõ2ÙxèôWÛ#S–"cú¹(+YîgZì© ûØ+[û†•nºléUu¤73Ÿj-ºì¥±?«ã{­f}ĞyǪM˜ÂÆX{>³0'9GŸ2. Descriptive statistics result pointed out that about 66.7% of rural households combined on-farm activities with non-farm and/or off-farm activities, whereas about 33.3% were relying only on on-farm activities to achieve their livelihood goal(s). Carswell [11] described the historical depth of livelihood diversification in highland Wolaita (Southern Ethiopia) and the huge contribution to improvement in household income. However, livelihood diversification is determined by complex and yet empirically untested factors in Debre Elias Woreda. An Initial Exploration of Concepts and Issues 1 1. Therefore, future policy should focus on investment strategies that promote households access to off-farm and non-farm activities as well as on enhancing farmers' awareness. for livelihood to be able to recover from “stress and shocks” but also to be able to “maintain and enhance” capabilities and assets into the future. Primary data were collected from a randomly selected 140 sample households through interview and focus group discussions. All figure content in this area was uploaded by Seid Sani, All content in this area was uploaded by Seid Sani on Nov 30, 2017, ISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Onli. Additional factors such as perception of erosion, education level, off-farm employment, and tenancy also influence conservation expenditures. Econometric analysis. Livelihood diversification is a strategy to avoid the risk associated with shocks and to improve livelihood security. Abstract This study analyzed households’ food insecurity and its determinants along with the coping mechanisms opted against food insecurity and shortage in Assosa zone, western Ethiopia. Household-level data were collected in … activities. This could be due to the relation between larger family size and household, with a livestock activity. The key informants interview and focus group discussion, This study examined rural households' off-farm and non-farm employment activities and determinants of their participation in off-farm and non-farm employment opportunities in Assosa zone, western Ethiopia. Primary data were collected from 180 sample households through interview and focus group discussions. The study finding also pointed out that the mean kilocalorie intake of food insecure households was 1440.37kcal/AE/day, with the minimum and maximum being 597.65 kcal and 2048.13 kcal, respectively. È1lrìÁ�ı`Ù‚ë¢ñåEÃ1¸±¿Zş®ùm¸–”Ïe¼xÓ‘ìcYi•ÖI%hUN"A�Œœ±Íô The results also indicated that the joint likelihood of using all adaptation strategies was only 1.5% and the joint likelihood of failure to adopt all of the adaptation strategies was 3.5%. The major contribution of the existing literature concentration in the determinants on the choice of livelihood strategies (Smith et al, 2000, Tefera et al, 2004, Yishak, 2014. This paper examines livelihood diversification as a survival strategy of rural households in developing countries. The Project would help improve livelihoods of people living in pastoral and agro-pastoral areas, contributing to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 1 (no Smallholder rural farm households face an increasing need of looking for alternative income sources to supplement their small scale agricultural activities. From the model result, other things being constant, the, constraints to engage in alternative non/off-, alternative on-farm only (appendix table 1). World Food and Agriculture. Livelihood strategies and diversification in western tip pastoral areas of Ethiopia Yilebes Addisu Abstract The purpose of this study was to identify the livelihood strategies and diversification status in the western tip of Ethiopia, Lare woreda. In Ethiopia, Bangladesh and Mali, for example, migration is widespread and in all three cases it is linked to income generation strategies (McDowell and de Haan, 1997). Multivariate probit model was estimated to identify the factors determining households' choice of adaptation strategies to climate change. were undertaken to gather data having qualitative nature. Fifth edition. Small enterprise development and sustainable rural livelihoods 10 References 13 . Determinants of Farmers’ Choice of Livelihood Strateg, frequency of extension contact, participation in, were significant variables determining household’s choice of livelihood strategies (see Appendix table 1). Rural enterprise and wage-labor compared 9 7. It is universally accepted the fact that agriculture sector is incapable of creating sufficient gainful employment, food security and spurring economic growth in rural areas of developing countries. This study examines the role of the rural labor market in reducing poverty and improving the well-being of smallholder farmers in rural Ethiopia. analysis of factors determining livelihood diversification among smallholder farmers in kwazulu-natal by collin lazuras yobe submitted in fulfilment of the academic requirements for the degree of master of science in agriculture: agricultural economics in the school of agricultural, earth and environmental sciences of employment opportunities and generates over 83% of foreign exchange earnings of the country, Ethiopia forced households to cultivate and, /or non-farm activities have got paramount importance to development practitioners and policy makers to find the, livelihood improvement. Hence, this study identified the livelihood strategies adopted by smallholder farmers and assessed the determinants of their decisions to choose diversified livelihood strategies in the Wogera district. The result of the descriptive statistics showed that the majority of the sample respondent households thus, 48.3% allocated all their labor force to pastoral and farming activities alone, while about 29.5% were involved in a combination of pastoral, farming and low return non pastoral nonfarm livelihood strategy and 22% work on pastoral, farming and high return non pastoral nonfarm combination of livelihood strategy. Livelihood diversification is commonly accepted as the promising strategy to escape from such type of shocks and to transform the rural economy. A two stage stratified random sampling technique was employed to select 120 household heads. The study shows that livestock mobility would continue to ensure high productivity due to changing environment, … The study is conducted by using a cross-sectional research approach. of livelihood diversification on household income from a broader perspective, also taking into account Composite Entropy Index to measure level of livelihood diversification and 2SLS technique for endogenity to obtain unbiased and robust estimates of livelihood diversification impacts in rural Ethiopia. In addition, focus group discussions and key informants interview were also used. Pastoral households have different access to resources and face different opportunities and challenges and thus choose different livelihood strategies calling for tailor made policy and development practice accordingly in line with their livelihood strategies choice. Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. 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